The mineral spring used by the thermal spa gushes up from the valley floor of Rio Sanguigno.
The salsa water in Pillo has a temperature of 15° C and is therefore classified as a "cold thermal water". The waters that feed this spring have circulated far underground for over 50 years.
The first documented proof that confirms the disintoxicating and laxative properties of this water dates back to the beginning of the 1900's, a period when it was well known that certain people travelled or stopped here to take the waters from the spring. The authorisation to produce Pillo mineral water was issued in 1964 but the thermal spa was not built until 1978-1980.
Because of the alkalinity in the stomach, this water provides an efficient fluidifying action firstly on the gastric and then on the intestinal mucosa; this facilitates digestion and absorption processes.
Pillo Salsa water is also used for inhalation and aerosol therapy to treat rhinitis, subacute and chronic catarrh pharyngitis, sinus phlogosis and middle ear secretory otitis and, in addition, hydroponic therapy and dermatology and beauty treatments.
This area is famous for the vast outcrops of gypsum, formations that are composed of a series of evaporations caused by sediment deposits in lagoon environments or in bordering penesaline basins. As the water evaporates, the precipitation of the minerals dissolved in the water occurs according to increasing degrees of solubility. The Mommialla spring is also found in this area.
At the end of the 19th century the Colzi quarries were being actively worked at Mommialla, and the gypsum was ground at Osteria Vecchia, along the road towards Gambassi Terme; this business continued until half-way through the 20th century.
This spring that gushes up through travertine deposits, forms a pool that constantly emits gases, but mainly carbon dioxide. The temperature of the water is approximately 18°C, and the water has very high salinity levels.
Mommialla was famous in the area for its thermal spa, the oldest in existence in the Gambassi area, and already active in medieval times.
The geological site is composed of the outcrops of Serpentinite, Gabbro and Diabase, belonging to the so-called Ophiolite formation.
The Botro delle Docce spring, taken from the old aqueduct, exits exactly at the point of contact between different degrees of the Ophiolite rock fracture or shearing on the sea bottom.
The aqueduct network was inaugurated on the 1st of October 1908. The piping in the aqueduct totalled a length of 4200 metres and distributed the water from the Botro delle Docce springs throughout the whole municipality area.
Although the underground tunnels and the cesspools are no longer used today, they are all in a good state of conservation.
The valley bottom of the Torrente Casciani has considerable gas emission, associated with surging of thermal water, which reaches a concentration at the hypothermal pool Bollori at 23° C.
These spring waters are classified as sulfate-alkaline-terrous, with a prevalence of calcium sulfate determined by the washing away of deep evaporitic rocks.
This is a pool of cloudy water caused by the presence of clay, and surrounded by metallic oxide and sulphur deposits at colloidal state caused by surface oxidation of the sulfidric acid (in gaseous form) present in the water.
As well as the sulfidric acid, the gas emission associated with the spring also contain considerable percentages of carbon dioxide and minor gases.
There is an old exploratory well near the spring which was used for searching for and collecting carbon dioxide. Intermittent bursts of gas with warm water still spring forth from the well today.
The Bollori spring has been used for generations by the local population for skin cures for animals, even though actual medical proof has never officially been confirmed by medical authorities.
The low temperature waters in the Luiano Spring that flow into the valley bottom from the Torrente dei Casciani, are classified as bicarbonate of soda.
The recharging area for the spring is close to the buhrstone outcrops at Iano and Poggio del Comune, recognisable for their strong permeability inside which deep hydric circulations are able to develop.
The mineral spring at Luiano is fed by very old waters, with a strong reputation in the past for their therapeutic powers, so much so that in the first half of the 20th century the water was bottled and sold.
The spring surges inside a cistern covered with a dome shaped cover made in days gone by and set alongside the old buildings destined for water bottling, and which have now been abandoned.
The concession for the spring water expired in 1977.